La Universidad de Madrid como escenario de las relaciones hispano-alemanas en el primer franquismo (1939-1951)

Carolina Rodríguez López
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Resumen

Nos acercamos a las relaciones sostenidas desde la Universidad de Madrid con centros científicos alemanes de 1939 a 1951 para observar la naturaleza, fórmulas y etapas que caracterizaron esas relaciones. Esta acción exterior española conllevaba un claro discurso político y propagandístico. Así, las relaciones académicas con Alemania se enmarcaban inicialmente en el discurso de cercanía al Eje promovido por el régimen y se concretaban en el intercambio de becarios, lectores, conferenciantes, publicaciones, adquisición de material científico, invitación a profesores como Carl Schmitt o la concesión del doctorado honoris causa por la Universidad de Madrid al hispanista Karl Vossler. Sin embargo, vistas desde 1945, se entendían acomodadas a la actitud neutral que el franquismo subrayaba y se centraban en la difusión del hispanismo y del espiritualismo cristiano. El flujo de contactos con Alemania disminuyó y se ajustó al impulso de nuevas instituciones encargadas de la visita de estudiantes extranjeros a Madrid, como el colegio Santiago Apóstol.

Palabras clave
relaciones hispano-alemanas,
Universidad de Madrid,
lectorados,
becas,
doctorado honoris causa,
Carl Schmitt
Abstract

I study the relationships between the University of Madrid and German scientific centres from 1939 to 1951. My aim is to detect the nature, characteristics and phases of this kind of relationships. These relationships and foreign affairs from the University were included in the global plan of political relationships and were involved in a political and propaganda discourse. So, the academic relationships with Germany were, at the beginning, contained in the Franco’s discourse very near to the Axis’s countries. These relationships were based on: exchange of lecturers, donation of reviews, request of cultural information, grants, organisation of courses, assistantships, the knowledge of German language among the Spanish students, invitations of German lectures (the most important was Carl Schmitt), the exchange of scientific products and the awarding of upper award as the honoris causa doctorate. The first honoris causa doctorate of the University of Madrid during Franco’s dictatorship went to the German Hispanist, Karl Vossler. However, from 1945 these relationships were close to the neutral attitude that the regime wanted to spread. They understand, as a main idea, the diffusion of the hispanism and the catholic spirit. The flow of relationships with Germany was reduced, was given a new direction and adapted to new institutions as the hall of residence Santiago Apóstol which took care to the foreign students in Madrid.

Keywords
Hispanic German relationships,
University of Madrid,
assistantships,
grants,
doctorates honoris causa,
Carl Schmitt