El Chile de Allende y la España de Franco. Una alianza inesperada favorecida por la tensión entre Washington y Santiago

Allende’s Chile and Franco’s Spain. An unexpected alliance favoured by Washington and Santiago
Pablo Sapag Muñoz de la Peña
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Resumen

La contraposición ideológica de los Gobiernos chileno y español entre 1970 y 1973 insinúa relaciones bilaterales menos fructíferas que cuando gobernaba Chile la Democracia Cristiana o después del golpe de Estado de 1973. Documentos chilenos, españoles y estadounidenses revelan, sin embargo, una pragmática alianza con voluntad de proyección estratégica e inmune a conflictos puntuales. Todo ello facilitado por unos Estados Unidos circunstancialmente enfrentados a Chile, lo que, como en otras épocas de intensificación de los contactos bilaterales, demuestra la dependencia de las relaciones hispano-chilenas a la actuación de terceros.

Palabras clave
Chile/Allende,
España/Franco,
Estados Unidos/Kissinger,
relaciones internacionales,
socialismo
Abstract

At first glance, the ideological differences between the Chilean and Spanish governments between 1970 and 1973 would seem to have impeded smooth diplomatic relations. The expectation would be that they were less fruitful than when Chile was ruled by the Christian Democratic Party, or than when the 1973 coup d’état ushered in a dictatorship. However, Spanish, Chilean and US documents reveal that despite the occurrence of minor conflicts, Franco’s Spain and Allende’s Chile established pragmatic links and were working towards transforming them into a strategic alliance. A United States government, confronted with Chile, helped facilitate this cooperation. As in other periods of Spanish-Chiliean relations, bilateral contact was dependent on third-party intervention and mediation.

Keywords
Chile/Allende,
Spain/Franco,
USA/Kissinger,
foreign affairs,
Socialism